Russia stunned the world with its entry into the Syrian conflict as a military player, pledging to take on the forces of Islamic State. But as the nature of Russia's intervention has become clearer, significant questions have emerged about the nature and the intent of their actions. How have European capitals responded to this internationalisation of the conflict? What are their plans to help restore a political process to Syria and how will the Russian involvement affect this? And how will Russia's intervention impact upon the ongoing refugee crisis that has shaken governments across the continent?
Iran deal precedent leaves Germany hopeful for political track.
In France, a cautious government faces public appetite for strong action.
Russian intervention opens old faultlines in Polish domestic opinion.