With the annexation of Crimea and its interference in Eastern Ukraine, Russia has openly challenged the European order in place since 1991 and indeed since the end of the Second World War. So how should the EU - traditionally used to seeing soft power as its best policy tool – cope with this display of old-fashioned power politics? How should it respond to the nature of the challenge posed by Russia? In this series of articles, ECFR experts from our national offices and contributors from other countries present the national perspective on this thorny issue from their country.
The Dutch position on Russia has hardened since the downing of MH17, but the Netherlands still pursues constructive engagement
Hungary has, for many reasons, become known as the country with the most pro-Russia policy within NATO and the EU.
The mixture of economic weakness and political confusion present in today’s Central Europe is a potential threat to European cohesion vis-a-vis Russia.
Germany’s willingness to enter into dialogue is explained by the fact that it feels a special responsibility towards Russia stemming from complicated history.
The EU must remain unified in its approach to Russia, and must defend the sovereignty and territorial integrity of its eastern partners.
Spain's cautious approach regarding the Ukraine crisis is rooted in a complex cluster of factors, including geographic distance and economic ties with Russia.
The Ukraine crisis has marked a gradual structural shift in Italian foreign policy towards Russia.
The crisis in Ukraine is not about the rights of ethnic Russians, but rather Moscow's desire to destabilise Ukraine and re-establish strategic control of the region.