The three new battlegrounds are economic warfare, weaponising institutions, and infrastructure competition.

ECFR’s Director Mark Leonard argues that the three new battlegrounds are economic warfare, weaponising institutions, and infrastructure competition. You can find more on this in the essay collection Connectivity Wars here.

Read more on: European Power, EU instruments, Geoeconomics

The European Council on Foreign Relations does not take collective positions. This commentary, like all publications of the European Council on Foreign Relations, represents only the views of its authors.