The French response to internal threats in North African countries has been to reinforce authoritarian rule to keep the peace. But it could inflame miltancy in the long run, especially in Chad and Libya.
This summer, Ibrahim Boubacar Keita was re-elected to Mali's presidency; his plan for peace in the country can stem the conflict, but as the Algerian case shows, the process of reconciliation can be daunting
On June 13 Malian soldiers and security forces were responsible for killing more than 30 civilians throughout the country - the government and international forces have been unable to reverse the trend
Encouraging regional integration could improve economic diversification and economic security in North Africa, while encouraging the regional labour migration that has long helped sustain the Sahel and West Africa.